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Gi & Laparoscopic

Colorectal Cancer


Best colorectal surgeons in kukatpally hyderabad

Colorectal cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the colon or rectum. Detectable through screenings like colonoscopies, it presents symptoms such as changes in bowel habits and abdominal discomfort. Timely intervention is crucial for effective treatment and improved outcomes.

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Dr Krishna Chaitanya
Dr. Krishna Chaitanya
(Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery)
GI and Laparoscopic Surgeon
Timings : 10 am - 6 pm
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---- Overview ----

Colorectal Cancer/ Colon Cancer

Best colorectal surgeons in kukatpally hyderabad

Colorectal cancer, also known as rectal cancer or colonic cancer, is a type of malignant tumor that originates in the colon or rectum. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopy, play a crucial role in detecting colorectal cancer in its early stages, when treatment is most effective.

Common symptoms of colon cancer include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal discomfort, and unexplained weight loss. Recognizing these colon cancer symptoms is essential, especially in women, as the signs can vary. Early-stage symptoms, like those of stage 1 colon cancer, may be subtle, making regular screenings and awareness vital for timely intervention.

Colorectal cancer treatments encompass various approaches, including surgery to remove tumors, chemotherapy, and other targeted therapies. Polyps, precursors to colorectal cancer, can be identified and removed during colonoscopies, reducing the risk of cancer development.

The causes of colorectal cancer are multifactorial, involving genetic factors, lifestyle choices, and age. Adenocarcinoma of the colon, the most common histological type, originates in the glandular cells lining the colon.

Staging colorectal cancer is crucial for determining the extent of the disease and planning appropriate treatment. The stages range from stage 0 (carcinoma in situ) to stage IV (spread to distant organs). Signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer may vary based on the cancer stage.

Regular screenings, awareness of colorectal cancer signs, and understanding risk factors are essential for early detection and effective treatment. Timely intervention can significantly improve the prognosis and increase the likelihood of successful colorectal cancer therapy. If symptoms like rectal bleeding, persistent abdominal pain, or changes in bowel habits occur, prompt medical evaluation is recommended.

Inflammatory colon symptoms, diverticulosis symptoms, and manifestations of hereditary conditions like HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) require attention for proper management. Colon cancer, if detected early, is often curable, emphasizing the importance of regular screenings and proactive healthcare.

Remember, early detection and timely treatment are key factors in improving outcomes for colorectal cancer patients. If you experience any concerning symptoms or fall into high-risk categories, consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance and appropriate screening measures.

Stages of Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is classified into different stages based on the extent of its spread. The stages are typically denoted from 0 to IV:

  • Stage 0 (Carcinoma in situ): Abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the colon or rectum but have not invaded deeper tissues.
  • Stage I: Cancer has invaded the inner lining but has not spread beyond the wall of the colon or rectum.
  • Stage II: Cancer has penetrated the wall of the colon or rectum and may involve nearby tissues, but there is no spread to lymph nodes or distant organs.
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, but not to distant organs.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues, often the liver or lungs.
Stages of Colorectal Cancer

Types of Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer can be categorized into different types based on the specific cells where the cancer begins. The main types include:

  • Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type, accounting for over 95% of colorectal cancers. It originates in the cells that line the inner surface of the colon and rectum.
  • Carcinoid Tumors: These tumors develop in the hormone-producing cells of the colon and rectum. They are relatively rare but can cause hormonal imbalances.
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs): Though rare in the colon and rectum, GISTs can occur. They begin in the interstitial cells of Cajal, which regulate the muscles in the digestive tract.
  • Lymphomas: Colorectal lymphomas start in the lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. They are uncommon compared to adenocarcinomas.
  • Sarcomas: These rare tumors originate in the connective tissues, including muscles and blood vessels, in the walls of the colon and rectum.

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer symptoms can vary, and some individuals may experience no symptoms in the early stages. Common signs and symptoms include:

  • Changes in Bowel Habits: Persistent diarrhea, constipation, or a change in the consistency of stools.
  • Blood in the Stool: Bright red blood or dark, tarry stools may indicate bleeding from the rectum or colon.
  • Abdominal Discomfort: Persistent abdominal pain, cramps, or bloating, especially if it's accompanied by changes in bowel habits.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: A significant and unexplained drop in weight may be a symptom.
  • Fatigue: Feeling consistently tired or weak can be associated with colorectal cancer.
  • Incomplete Evacuation: Feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely after a bowel movement.
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia: A low red blood cell count due to chronic blood loss, which can occur with colorectal cancer.
  • Nausea or Vomiting: These symptoms may occur if a tumor is obstructing the bowel.
  • Abdominal Mass or Lump: In some cases, a palpable mass or lump may be felt in the abdomen.
Stages of Colorectal Cancer
---- Colonoscopy ----

What is a colonoscopy?

Colonoscopy is an examination of your large intestine(colon), with a thin flexible tube attached to a light and a tiny camera. This scope is passed into your large intestine through anal opening


  • Colonoscopy is an exam of your large intestine(colon), with a thin flexible tube attached to a light and a tiny camera. This scope is passed into your large intestine through anal opening.
  • It is done to check for growths or cancer, or to find the cause of symptoms such as diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, or other problems in your large intestines.
  • Be sure to complete the bowel preparation as advised, including food and drink types you can have in the days leading up to the procedure. You may need to stop using certain medicines before the procedure.
---- colorectal cancer screening ----

What is colorectal cancer screening?(CCS)

It is the schematic flow of screening tests that checks for cancer of your rectum and colon (large intestine) even though you may not have any symptoms. Several investigations may be used to check for colorectal cancer.

Key Points

  • Colorectal cancer screening includes tests that check for cancer of your rectum and colon (large intestine).
  • Tests may include lab tests to look for traces of blood in your bowel movements, a test that uses a thin, flexible, lighted tube put into your rectum and into your intestines, or an X-ray after chalky liquid called barium is passed through a tube in your rectum.
  • Ask your doctor how & when often you should be evaluated for colorectal cancer.
colorectal cancer screening
---- colo-rectal cancer ----

What is colo-rectal cancer?

Colo-rectal cancer (CRC) is the growth of abnormal cells in your large intestine (colon & rectum). Colon is the last segment of your bowel which is usually 150cms long. The rectum measures about 10-15cms & ends before the anal opening. Together it is called Colon cancer which is one of the most common types of cancer, also called colo-rectal cancer. Early cancer detection and treatment improves survival and disease free outcomes.

Key Points

  • Colo-rectal cancer (crc) is the growth of abnormal cells in the large intestine.
  • Treatment may include surgery to remove the tumor, along with a part of your colon followed by chemotherapy/ biological therapy & or radiation. Often, multiple treatment methods are used.
  • Post treatment, regular follow-up visits with your healthcare provider are mandatory
colorectal cancer screening
---- Colostomy and Ileostomy ----

What is Colostomy and Ileostomy?

A colostomy and an ileostomy are surgical procedures. A stoma is an artificial opening made in the abdominal wall, through which your intestinal content comes out. Based on the type of intestine that is used for creating a stoma it can be an Ileostomy – where Ileum (small intestine) is used or Colostomy – when a Colon (large intestine) is used.

Key Points

  • A colostomy and an ileostomy are surgical procedures to create a new opening in your belly, called a stoma. Your intestinal content will empty in a stoma bag attached to the stoma. A colostomy or ileostomy can be temporary or a permanent one. The procedure gives time for your intestine time to heal. After the procedure, you will be taught how to change your bag and clean and care for your stoma
Colostomy and Ileostomy
---- FAQs ----


Colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. It usually develops from polyps, which are abnormal growths in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Some common symptoms of colorectal cancer include changes in bowel habits (such as persistent diarrhea or constipation), rectal bleeding or blood in the stool, abdominal discomfort or pain, unexplained weight loss, and fatigue. However, it's important to note that not everyone with colorectal cancer experiences noticeable symptoms in the early stages, which is why regular screening is crucial.

There are several steps you can take to lower your risk of colorectal cancer:

  • Get regular screenings: Screening tests, such as colonoscopies, can detect precancerous polyps or early-stage cancer when treatment is most effective. The frequency and type of screening depend on your age, family history, and other risk factors. Consult with your healthcare provider to determine the best screening schedule for you.
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Adopting a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while limiting red and processed meats can reduce your risk. Regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are also beneficial.
  • Know your family history: If you have a family history of colorectal cancer or certain genetic conditions, you may be at higher risk. In such cases, your healthcare provider might recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.
  • Be aware of symptoms: Pay attention to any changes in your bowel habits or the presence of blood in your stool. If you experience persistent symptoms, consult your doctor promptly.

The treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on several factors, including the stage of cancer, its location, and the overall health of the patient. Common treatment modalities include:

  • Surgery: Surgery is often the primary treatment for colorectal cancer. The extent of the surgery depends on the stage and location of the cancer. It may involve removing polyps, portions of the colon or rectum, or even the entire colon in some cases.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses medications to kill cancer cells or prevent their growth. It can be administered before surgery (neoadjuvant), after surgery (adjuvant), or in cases of advanced cancer to slow down its progression.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy utilizes high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation to destroy cancer cells or shrink tumors. It may be recommended before surgery to reduce tumor size or after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells.

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